This is the fatawa I found on this subject that I promised I'd post: Question: Is it the wife's duty to do all the housework, must the husband help her or not? Or is it possible, that her work is just a favour to the husband and the family and she will be rewarded for it, as if she gave sadaqa? Answer: Praise be to Allaah. The more correct view in this matter is that stated by a number of scholars, such as Abu Bakr ibn Abi Shaybah, Abu Ishaaq al-Jawzjaani and Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allaah have mercy on them), who said that it is the woman?s duty to serve her husband within the bounds of what is reasonable and as other women who are like her serve husbands who are like him. She also has to take care of the house, doing things like cooking and so on, in accordance with what is customary among people like her and her husband. This differs according to circumstances, time and place, hence Ibn Taymiyah said: ?This varies according to circumstances. What the Bedouin wife has to do is not the same as what the urban wife has to do.? The evidence for this more correct opinion is: 1. the Hadeeth of al-Bukhaari: Imaam al-Bukhaari narrated in his Saheeh that Faatimah (may Allaah be pleased with her), the daughter of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) asked him for a servant. He said, ?Shall I not tell you of something that is better for you than that? When you go to sleep, say ?Subhaan-Allaah (Glory be to Allaah)? thirty three times, ?Al-Hamdu Lillaah (praise be to Allaah)? thirty three times, and ?Allaahu akbar (Allaah is Most Great)? thirty four times.? (Saheeh al-Bukhaari bi Sharh al-?Asqallaani, part 9/506). Al-Tabari said, in his commentary on this hadeeth: we may understand from this hadeeth that every woman who is able to take care of her house by making bread, grinding flour and so on, should do so. It is not the duty of the husband if it is the custom for women like her to do this themselves. What we learn from the hadeeth is that when Faatimah (may Allaah be pleased with her) asked her father (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) for a servant, he did not command her husband to find her a servant or hire someone to do these tasks, or to do these tasks himself. If it were ?Ali?s duty to do these things, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) would have commanded him to do them. 2. The hadeeth of Asma? bint Abi Bakr Imaam al-Bukhaari (may Allaah have mercy on him) reported in his Saheeh that Asma? bint Abi Bakr (may Allaah be pleased with her) said: ?I got married to al-Zubayr, and he had no wealth on earth and no slaves, nothing except a camel for bringing water and his horse. I used to feed his horse and bring water, and I used to sew patches on the bucket. I made dough but I was not good at baking bread, so my (female) neighbours among the Ansaar used to bake bread for me, and they were sincere women. I used to bring date pits from al-Zubayr?s land that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) had given to him, carrying them on my head. This land was two-thirds of a farsakh away. One day I came, carrying the date pits on my head, and I met the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), who had a group of the Ansaar with him. He called me and made his camel kneel down, for me to ride behind him, but I felt too shy to go with the men, and I remembered al-Zubayr and his jealousy, for he was the most jealous of people. The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) realized that I felt shy, so he moved on. I came to al-Zubayr and told him, ?I met the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) when I was carrying date pits on my head, and he had a group of his companions with him. He made his camel kneel down for me to ride with him, but I remembered your jealousy.? He said, ?By Allaah, it bothers me more that you have to carry the date pits than that you should ride with him.?? Asma? said: ?After that, Abu Bakr sent me a servant to take care of the horse, and it was as if I had been liberated from slavery.? (Reported by al-Bukhaari, Fath, 9/319). In the commentary on the hadeeth of Asma?, it says: from this incident we may understand that it is the woman?s duty to take care of everything that her husband needs her to take care of. This was the opinion of Abu Thawr. Other fuqaha? suggested that Asma? did this voluntarily and that she was not obliged to do it. Ibn Hajar al-?Asqallaani said: ?It seems that this incident ? Asma? carrying the date pitss to help her husband ? and other similar incidents were the matter of necessity, namely that her husband al-Zubayr and other Muslim men were preoccupied with jihaad and other things that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) had commanded them to do, and they did not have time to take care of domestic matters themselves, and could not afford to hire servants to do that for them, and there was no one else who could do that apart from their womenfolk. So the women used to take care of the home and whoever lived in it, so that the men could devote their time to supporting Islam.? Then he said (may Allaah have mercy on him): ?What is more likely is that the matter had to do with the customs in that land, for customs may vary in this regard.? It seems that what Ibn Hajar said is close to the view of those who say that the wife has to take care of her husband and the home in accordance with the dictates of local custom. Ibn al-Qayyim said, concerning the story of Asma?: ?When the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) saw Asma? with the date pits on her head, and her husband al-Zubayr was with her, he did not tell him that she did not have to serve him, or that this was unfair to her. He approved of her serving him and of all the women among the Sahaabah helping their husbands. This is a matter concerning which there is no doubt.? 3. The hadeeth of Jaabir The Shaykh of the Muhadditheen, Imaam al-Bukhaari (may Allaah have mercy on him) reported in his Saheeh that Jaabir ibn ?Abd-Allaah said: ?My father died and left seven daughters, or nine daughters. I married a woman who had been previously married, and the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said to me, ?Did you get married, O Jaabir?? I said, ?Yes.? He asked, ?A virgin or a previously-married woman?? I said, ?A previously-married woman.? He said, ?Why not a young woman so you could play and joke with one another?? I said, ? ?Abd-Allaah [the father of Jaabir] has died and left behind daughters, and I would not like to bring them someone who is like them, so I got married to a woman who can take care of them.? He said, ?May Allaah bless you? or ?Fair enough.?? (Saheeh al-Bukhaari bi Sharh al-?Asqallaani, vol.9/513). The evidence derived from the hadeeth of Jaabir is that al-Bukhaari introduced this hadeeth under the heading, ?Baab ?awn al-mar?ah zawjahaa fi waladih (Chapter: a woman helping her husband with his children)?. Imaam Ibn Hajar al-?Asqallaani said, commenting on this introduction by al-Bukhaari: ?It seems that al-Bukhaari derived the idea that a woman should take care of her husband?s children from the fact that the wife of Jaabir took care of his sisters; if she should take care of his sisters then it is even more befitting that she should take of his children.? (Saheeh al-Bukhaari bi Sharh al-?Asqallaani, vol.9/513). We can say that the wife should take care of her husband, as this is more befitting than her taking care of his sisters or his daughters from another wife. We may also understand from this hadeeth that what was customary at the time of the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was that women did not only take care of their husbands, they also took care of those who were dependent on their husbands and lived in their houses. The evidence that this understanding is correct is the fact that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) did not tell Jaabir off for his reason for marrying a previously-married woman, which was that she could take care of his sisters. This indicates that the custom among the Muslims at that time dictated that the wife should take care of those who were under her husband?s care, which means that the wife should serve her husband in those matters that are dictated by local custom, because the husband?s right to be served by his wife comes before that of his sisters. 4. ?Urf (custom) General contracts ? including marriage contracts ? should be governed by the customs that are known among the people, and the custom is that the wife should serve her husband and also take care of matters in the home. In some societies, the custom is that the wife should take care of more than the regular domestic matters. Imaam al-Qurtubi said, concerning the matter of the wife serving her husband and taking care of the home: ?This has to do with ?Urf, which is one of the bases of sharee?ah. The women of the Bedouin and the desert-dwellers serve their husbands, even looking for fresh water and taking care of the animals?? What happens nowadays is that the wife ? usually ? serves her husband and takes care of different matters within the home. There may be a servant to help her with that if her husband can afford it. If the husband knows that the majority of scholars say that it is not obligatory for the wife to serve her husband and take care of the house, I say that one of the benefits of this may be that he will not go to extremes and demand too much of his wife in this regard, and that he will not give her a hard time if she falls short, because what she is doing is not a duty according to the majority of fuqaha?. However, even it is a duty according to some of them ? and this is what we think is more correct ? the fact that there is such a difference of opinion means that the husband has to look at what she is doing as something vol
Insha Allah this will clarify the soundness of hadith being written in the time of an Nabi SAWS.
Praise be to Allaah.
It was narrated from Abu Sa?eed al-Khudri that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: ?Do not write anything from me; whoever has written anything from me other than the Qur?aan, let him erase it and narrate from me, for there is nothing wrong with that.? (Narrated by Muslim, al-Zuhd wa?l-Raqaa?iq, 5326)
Al-Nawawi said in his commentary on Saheeh Muslim:
?Al-Qaadi said: there were many disputes among the Sahaabah and Taabi?een concerning the writing down of knowledge. Many of them regarded this as being makrooh, but most of them regarded it as permissible. This dispute is no longer an issue.
They differed as to the meaning of this hadeeth which says that it is forbidden. It was said that this pertained to one who was sure of his memory, and there was the fear that he may rely upon what he had written if he wrote it down; the ahaadeeth which say that it is permissible to write things down is to be interpreted as referring to the one whose memory is not reliable, such as the hadeeth, ?Write it down for Abu Shaah?; or the hadeeth of the saheefah of ?Ali (may Allaah be pleased with him); the hadeeth of the book of ?Amr ibn Hazm, which contains laws on inheritance, sunnahs and diyaat (blood money); the hadeeth about writing down charity, and the minimum amounts at which zakaah becomes obligatory (nisaab), with which Abu Bakr sent Anas (may Allaah be pleased with him) to Bahrain; the hadeeth of Abu Hurayrah which says that Ibn ?Amr ibn al-?Aas used to ; write things down but he (Abu Hurayrah) did not write things down, and other ahaadeeth. And it was said that the hadeeth forbidding writing down ahaadeeth was abrogated by these ahaadeeth. The prohibition was in effect when there was the fear that (the words of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) might be mixed with the Qur?aan. When that danger was no longer present, permission was given to write down (ahaadeeth). And it was said that the prohibition mentioned in the hadeeth referred to writing ahaadeeth on the same page as Qur?aan, lest they become mixed and thus the reader would be confused when looking at this page. And Allaah knows best.
The hadeeth of Abu Shaah was narrated by al-Bukhaari from Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him), who said: ?When Allaah granted His Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) victory over Makkah, he stood before the people and praised and glorified Allaah, then he said: ?Allaah protected Makkah from the elephant and has given authority to His Messenger and the believers over it, so fighting was forbidden for anyone before me, and was made permissible for me for part of a day, and it will not be permissible for anyone after me. Its game should not be chased, its thorny bushes should not be uprooted, and picking up its fallen things is not allowed except for one who makes public announcement for it, and he whose relative is murdered has the option either to accept a compensation for it or to retaliate.? Al-?Abbas said, ?Except Al-Idhkhir (a kind of plant), for we use it in our graves and houses.? The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, ?Except Al-Idhkhir.? Abu Shaah, a Yemeni, stood up and said, ?O Messenger of Allaah! Get it written for me.? The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, ?Write it for Abu Shaah.? (al-Luqatah, 2254)
Ibn Hajar said: What may be understood from the story of Abu Shaah (?Write it for Abu Shaah?) is that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) gave permission for hadeeth to be written down from him.
This contradicts the hadeeth of Abu Sa?eed al-Khudri, which says that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, ?Do not write down anything from me except the Qur?aan.? (Narrated by Muslim).
The two may be reconciled by noting that the prohibition applied only to the time when the Qur?aan was being revealed, lest it be confused with something else, and that permission was given at other times; or that the prohibition applied only to writing down things other than Qur?aan with the Qur?aan on one thing, and that permission was given to write them separately; of that the prohibition came first and the permission abrogated that, when there was no longer any fear of confusion. This is most likely to be the case.
It was said that the prohibition applied only to those whom it was feared would depend on the writing and not memorize things, and that permission was given for those from whom such a thing was not feared.
The scholars said: a group of the Sahaabah and Taabi?een regarded it as makrooh to write down the hadeeth and they regarded it as mustahabb to learn it from them by heart, as they had learned it. But when people were no longer able to strive so hard (in memorizing) and the scholars feared that knowledge might be lost, they compiled it in books.?
Sheikh Muhammed Salih Al-Munajjid
Recently a friend of mine had his children taken away from him by his ex. He's not from this country and isn't allowed back in the country. After she got married he got the children. That marriage didn't last long, so when she was able to go see her children she was already plotting on how to get back the children. Ahhh, she remarried him and acted so poorly that the marriage didn't last a week. Even after the divorce the children refused to go with her. She got the police involved and still the children wanted to be with their father. All of them are at that age of choosing which parent they prefer to be with. Anyway she took him to court and she lost. Case closed right, no. After getting married again and having another child, she got the state department involved and they went and got the children...over a year later. This just doesn't make sense to me. Her rights are gone, but she refuses to let go. Can the sisters help me understand this. And sisters, what are you thinking of doing when you get married and your children's father is Muslim?
As salaamu alaikum believers,
I've had it done to me and I'm sure other men have to. The problem is or seems to be a problem, men having children. As a kafr kid it was common to her men say that they wanted a woman with no kids, but in Islam I'm funding that common among the women to say. How'd things get so backwards that we are resembling the kufr in this type of speech? In Islam the mother gets the children in a divorce. Of course there are conditions both ways, but the mother getting the children is the norm. If the mother gets married, then the father's rights to the children outweigh the mother's rights to them and he gets the children. Like I said before, there are conditions both ways.
My complaint, shock, and amazement is that if a brother has children a lot of sisters aren't seeing this as a brother sticking to Qur'an and Sunnah. They tipically see it as a burden on them and refuse to even going any further.
I've been told by sisters with their own children that the person they are going to marry can't have any children...but they have children.?. What's the deal with that? We men should take care of yours, but you refuse ours?...
Where are your feet in the salah? This has more to do with unity in the ummah than most people think.
"Straighten your rows (he said it three times),by Allaah either you straighten your rows or Allaah will cause conflict between your hearts."
The hadeeth has been selected by Aboo Dawood [no.662], Ibn Hibbaan [no.396], Ahmad [4/276] and ad-Doolaabee in al-Kunaa [2/86] from Abil-Qaasim al-Jadalee Husayn ibnil-Haarith who said; I heard an-Nu'maan ibn Basheer say:
"The Messenger of Allaah turned to us and said..."
(then he mentioned the above hadeeth). Then an-Nu'maan ibn Basheer added:
"...So I saw each man joining his shoulder; knee and ankle with that of his companion."
The sanad of this hadeeth is saheeh, al-Bukhaaree quoted it in discontinuous (mu'allaq) form in a decided manner (indicating that he considered it authentic). Ibn Khuzaymah also connected its chain of narration in his Saheeh [1/82,83] and al-Mundhiree [at-Targheeb 1/176] and al-Haafidh [al-Fath 2/176] both confirmed this. Ibn Hibaanselected the hadeeth in his Saheeh [14/396 - Mawaarid] reporting through the tareeq of ibn Khuzaymah.
The text of the hadeeth is also reported by ad-Doolaabee by way of Baqeeyah ibnil-Waleed who said: 'Hurayz narrated to us saying: I heard Ghaylaan al-Muqri' narrate from Abee Qutaylah Marthad ibn Wadaa'ah (who said: I heard) an-Nu'maan ibn Basheer say...', (then he mentioned the hadeeth).
The Fiqh of these Ahadeeth
In these two ahadeeth there are a number of important points of benefit and fiqh.
The obligation to straighten the rows for salaah and to stand close together in them, due to the command mentioned in the ahadeeth. The rule concerning such commands is that they constitute an obligation (wujoob) except if accompanying evidence (qareenah) proves otherwise as is well established in the science of fiqh principles. The qareenah here in fact emphasizes the obligation, and that is in the saying of the Prophet Sallallaahu ?alayhiwasalam, "...or Allaah will cause conflict between your hearts", since such a warning is never given for leaving that which is not obligatory as is quite clear.
2. The forming and straightening of the rows mentioned in the hadeeth is only achieved by joining the shoulder and the side of ones foot with the shoulder and foot of the adjacent person. This is because that is what the Companions, Radiallaahu 'anhum, did when ordered to straighten the rows and stand close together in them. Hence al-Haafidh (ibn Hajar) said in al-Fath after mentioning the additional saying of Anas in the first hadeeth that I have quoted above:
"This (wording) is an explicit explanation that the mentioned action (of the Companions) was done in the time of the Prophet Sallallaahu ?alayhiwasalam. With this in mind the usage of this action as a pretext for explaining what straightening the row means becomes complete."
3. In the first hadeeth there is an affirmation of a clear miracle (mu?jizah) given to the Prophet Sallallaahu ?alayhiwasalam, and that was his ability to see behind him without turning his head. However it should be known that this was exclusively for the Prophet Sallallaahu ?alayhiwasalam when he was in Salaah since nothing exists in the Sunnah that states that he used to see behind him without turning his head outside the Salaah. And Allaah knows best. 4. In the two ahadeeth there is a clear proof for something that many people do not know about, although it has become recognized in the field of psychology, and that is the fact that outer (apparent) evil and corruption affects inner evil and corruption and vise versa. There are many ahadeeth about this, perhaps we will undertake the task of gathering and referencing them at some later opportunity if Allah, The Most High wishes. 5. The entering of the Imaam into the opening takbeer for prayer when the mu?ahddhin says ?The Prayer is about to start?? (qad qaamati-salaah) is an innovation in the religion (bid?ah) due to its contradicting the authentic Sunnah, as these ahadeeth prove ? especially the first one. The ahadeeth show us that after the Iqaamah has been called there is a duty upon the Imaam which he must fulfill, and that is commanding the people to straighten the rows, reminding them of that, for he is responsible for them and will be asked. "?And all of you are shepherds and all of you will be asked about your flock."
I think from the following question and answer one should realize that the sunnah can't be rejected.
Why do we have to follow the sunnah of the prophet Muhammad and not just follow the quraan ?
Why do we have to follow a specific Mathab?
Praise be to Allaah.
The first question may appear strange and somewhat surprising to committed, practising Muslims. How can something which is so obviously one of the bases of Islaam become a matter for discussion and debate? But since the question has been asked, we will present, with the help of Allaah, the principles and bases of the importance of the Sunnah, the obligation to follow it and the ruling concerning those who reject it. By so doing, we will also refute the doubters and the misguided group who call themselves ?Qur?aaniyyeen? (the Qur?aan has nothing to do with them!) In sha Allaah this discussion will be of benefit to everyone who wants to understand the truth of the matter.
Proof of the importance of the Sunnah
(1) The Qur?aan speaks of the importance of the Sunnah, for example:
(a) Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): ?He who obeys the Messenger has indeed obeyed Allaah . . .? [al-Nisaa? 4:80] Allaah described obedience to the Prophet (peace be upon him) as being a part of obedience to Him. Then He made a connection between obedience to Him and obedience to the Prophet (peace be upon him): ?O you who believe! Obey Allaah and obey the Messenger . . .? [al-Nisaa? 4:59]
(b) Allaah warns us not to go against the Prophet (peace be upon him), and states that whoever disobeys him will be doomed to eternal Hell. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): ?. . . And let those who oppose the Messenger?s commandment beware, lest some fitnah (trial, affliction, etc.) befall them or a painful torment be inflicted on them.? [al-Nur 24:63]
(c) Allaah has made obedience to His Prophet a religious duty; resisting or opposing it is a sign of hypocrisy: ??But no, by your Lord, they can have no Faith, until they make you [Muhammad] judge in all disputes between them, and find in themselves no resistance against your decisions, and accept (them) with full submission.? [al-Nisaa? 4:65]
(d) Allaah commands His slaves to respond to Him and His Messenger: ?O you who believe! Answer Allaah (by obeying Him) and (His) Messenger when he calls you to that which will give you life . . .? [al-Anfaal 8:24]
(e) Allaah also commands His slaves to refer all disputes to him: ?. . . (And) if you differ in anything amongst yourselves, refer it to Allaah and His Messenger . . .? [al-Nisaa? 4:59]
(2) The Sunnah itself indicates the importance of the Sunnah. For example:
(a) Al-Tirmidhi reported from Abu Raafi? and others that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: ?I do not want to see any one of you reclining on his couch and, when he hears of my instructions or prohibitions, saying ?I don?t accept it; we didn?t find any such thing in the Book of Allaah.?? Abu ?Eesaa said: This is a saheeh hasan hadeeth. (See Sunan al-Tirmidhi, Shaakir edition, no. 2663).
Al-?Irbaad ibn Saariyah, may Allaah be pleased with him, reported that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: ?Would any of you think, reclining on his couch, that Allaah would only describe what is forbidden in the Qur?aan? I tell you, by Allaah, that I have warned and commanded and prohibited things that are as important as what is in the Qur?aan, if not more so.? (Reported by Abu Dawud, Kitaab al-Khiraj wa?l-imaarah wa?l-fay?).
(b) Abu Dawud also reported from al-?Irbaad ibn Saariyah, may Allaah be pleased with him, that ?the Messenger of Allaah (peace be upon him) led us in prayer one day, then he turned to us and exhorted us strongly . . . (he said), ?Pay attention to my sunnah (way) and the way of the Rightly-guided Khaleefahs after me, adhere to it and hold fast to it.?? (Saheeh Abi Dawud, Kitaab al-Sunnah).
(3) The scholars? consensus (ijmaa?) affirming the importance of the Sunnah.
Al-Shaafi?i, may Allaah have mercy on him, said: ?I do not know of anyone among the Sahaabah and Taabi?een who narrated a report from the Messenger of Allaah (peace be upon him) without accepting it, adhering to it and affirming that this was sunnah. Those who came after the Taabi?een, and those whom we met did likewise: they all accepted the reports and took them to be sunnah, praising those who followed them and criticizing those who went against them. Whoever deviated from this path would be regarded by us as having deviated from the way of the Companions of the Prophet (peace be upon him) and the scholars who followed them, and would be considered as one of the ignorant.
(4) Common sense indicates the importance of the Sunnah.
The fact that the Prophet (peace be upon him) is the Messenger of Allaah indicates that we must believe everything he said and obey every command he gave. It goes without saying that he has told us things and given instructions in addition to what is in the Qur?aan. It is futile to make a distinction between the Sunnah and the Qur?aan when it comes to adhering to it and responding to it. It is obligatory to believe in what he has told us, and to obey his instructions.
The ruling concerning those who deny the importance of the Sunnah is that they are kaafirs, because they deny and reject a well-known and undeniable part of the religion.
As regards your second question, about whether a Muslim is required to follow a particular madhhab, the answer is that he does not have to. For the average ?rank and file? Muslim, his madhhab is that of his mufti or the scholar whom he consults for religious verdicts; he must ask those pious scholars whom he trusts for opinions when necessary. If a person has enough knowledge to distinguish which evidence and opinion is stronger, then he must follow the scholarly opinion which has the strongest support from the Qur?an and Sunnah. It is acceptable for a Muslim to follow one of the four well-known madhhabs, on the condition that he understands that the truth in any given issue may lie with another madhhab, in which case he must ignore his own madhhab?s opinion and follow the truth. The Muslim?s aim is to follow the truth that is in accordance with the Qur?an and Sunnah. The madhhabs of fiqh are only a means of reaching ahkaam (rules) based on the Qur?aan and Sunnah, they are not Qur?aan and Sunnah.
We ask Allaah to show us the truth and help us to follow it, and to show us falsehood and help us to avoid it. May Allaah bless our Prophet Muhammad.
Why are so many muslims not inclined to learn about tawheed and it is the only thing that was taught by an nabi SAWS for 13 years? How can this being taught and talked about be blamed for dividing the ummah and Allah shows us this throughout the Qur'an, and an nabi taught this since becoming a prophet until his death? The Divisions of Tawheed And Tawheed - with the Salaf and the Scholars of Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa'ah has three divisions. 'Allaamah as-Safaareenee (died 1112H) - may God's mercy be upon him - said: "Know that Tawheed has three divisions: Tawheedar-Ruboobiyyah (the Oneness of God in His Lordship), Tawheed al- Uloohiyyah (to single-out Almighty God alone for worship) and Tawheed al-Asmaa was-Sifaat (the uniqueness of God's Names and Attributes)."11 "And God has gathered these three divisions in His - the Most High's- saying: "Lord of the heavens and the earth and all that is between them, so worship Him alone and be constant and patient in the worship of Him. Do you know of any who is similar to Him?"12"13 "So Tawheed ar-Ruboobiyyah implies: A firm and definite belief that Almighty God alone is the Creator, the Master and Owner, and the Command is for none but Him."14 "And Tawheed al-Uloohiyyah is to single-out God alone for all worship and not to worship anything along with Him, whether it be an angel, a Messenger, a prophet, a pious person, a tree, a stone, the sun, the moon, or other than these."15 "And Tawheed al-Asmaa was-Sifaat is the uniqueness of Almighty God - the Most High - with regards to His Names and His Attributes, by affirming that which God has affirmed for Himself - whether in His Book (i.e. the Qur'aan) or by the tongue of His Messenger - may the peace and blessings of God be upon him - without tahreef (distorting the Names and Attributes), ta'teel (denial of the Names and Attributes), takyeef (saying how they are), or tamztheel (making any resemblance with the creation)."16 11. Lawaami' al-Anwaarul-Bahiyyah (1/128) of as-Safaareenee. For the division of Tawheed into three types, refer to: al-Ibaanah 'an Sharee'atil-Firqatin-Naajiyah (p. 693-694) of Ibn Battah (died 387H); Kitaab ut-Tawheed of Ibn Mandah (died 395H) and al-Hujjah fee Bayaanil-Mahajjah (1/85, 1/111-113) of Abul-Qaasim al-Asbahaanee (died 535H). 12. Qur'an - Soorah Maryam 19.65. 13. Taqreebut-Tadmuriyyah (p. 110) of Shaykh Ibn al-'Uthaymeen. 14. Taqreebut-Tadmuriyyah (p. 110-111). 15. Taqreebut-Tadmuriyyah (p. 112-113). 16. Taqreebut-Tadmuriyyah (p. 116-117). Tawheed - its Importance in the Qur'aan Ibn Abil--'Izz - may God have mercy on him - said: "So the Qur'aan - all of it - is about Tawheed, its rights and its rewards; and about Shirk, its people and their punishments. Thus: "All praise belongs to God, Lord of the worlds."19 is Tawheed (of knowledge). "The Most Merciful, the Bestower of Mercy" is Tawheed (of knowledge). "The Master of the Day of Judgement" is also Tawheed (of knowledge). "You alone do we worship and You alone do we seek aid and assistance from" is Tawheed (of action) . "Guide us to the Straight Path" concerns Tawheed and asking for guidance to the path of the people of Tawheed, (which is): "The Path of those whom You have favoured." "Not of those who have earned Your anger, nor of those who have gone astray" - those who have separated themselves from Tawheed."20 So Almighty God begins this soorah by first informing us about Himself - the Most Perfect (i.e. Tawheed of knowledge). Then after having knowledge of Almighty God - the Most High - God orders us with the Tawheed of action: "You alone do we worship." Likewise just as "the great Qu'aan opens with Tawheed it also I ends with it. So the Qur'aan opens with Soorah al-Faatihah: "All praise belongs to God, Lord of the Worlds" and the great Qur'aan ends with the Soorah: "Say: I seek refuge with the Lord of mankind".21"22 Likewise, the greatest ayaah (verse) in the Qur'aan is Ayatul-Kursee (the Verse of the Throne).33 Since this great aayah informs us - from start to finish - purely about Almighty God's Names, His Attributes and His Actions. So this further emphasizes the importance of the Tawheed of knowledge. Similarly, Soorah al-Ikhlaas - from start to finish - is concerned with the Tawheed of knowledge, whilst Soorah al-Kaafiroon is connected with the Tawheed of action.24 Indeed, the Prophet - may the peace and blessings of God be upon him - said about a man who was reciting al-Kafiroon in the first rak'ah (unit of formal prayer): "This is a servant who believes in his Lord." Then the man recited al-Ikhlaas in the second, so he - may the peace and blessings of God be upon him - said: "This is a servant who knows his Lord".25 The Prophet - may the peace and blessings of God be upon him - said: "Say: He is God, the One" is equivalent to one third of the Qur'aan. And "Say: O disbelievers . . . " is equivalent to a quarter of the Qur'aan.26 What further demonstrates the importance of this Tawheed is the fact that the Prophet - may the peace and blessings of God be upon him - "would begin his day with Tawheed (of knowledge and action), since he recited both Soorah al-Kafiroon and Soorah al-Ikhlaas in the two rak'aat (units of prayer) before Fajr (dawn prayer).27 And he would end the night by reciting both of these soorahs in his witr (final - literally "odd numbered") prayer.28"29 "Indeed, all of the Qur'aan is about Tawheed."30 And Almighty God - the Mighty and Majestic - says: "A book We have sent down, full of blessings, that men may ponder over its messages; and those who possess understanding may take them to heart."31 19. Qur'aan - Soorah al-Faatiha 1:1 - and what follows is a completion of this soorah. 20. Sharhul-'Aqeedatul-Tahaawiyyah (pp. 89-90) of lbn Abil-'Izz. 21. Qur'aan - Soorahtun- Naas 114:1. 22. Hukmul-Intimaa (p.58) of Shaykh Bakr Abu Zayd - slightly adapted. 23. Related by Muslim (no.1768) from 'Ubayy ibn Ka'b - may God be pleased with him. 24. Refer to Majmoo' al-Fataawaa (1/54) of Ibn Taymiyyah. 25. Hasan: Related by at-Tahawee and Ibn Hibbaan. Al-Haafidh Ibn Hajar authenticated it in Ahadeethul-'AaIiyaat (no.16). 26. Saheeh: Related by at-Tabaraanee in al-Mu'jamul-Kabeer (3/203/2) from Ibn 'Umar - may God be pleased with him. It was authenticated by al-Albaanee in Saheehul-Jaami' (no. 4405). 27. Related by Muslim (no.726) 28. Saheeh: Related by an-Nasaa'ee and al-Haakim, who declared it saheeh. 29. At-Tawheed wa Atharahu fee Hayaatil-Muslim (p.30) of Ahmad ibn Ibraaheem al-Hareeqee. 30. Madaarijus-Saalikeen (3/450). 31. Qur'aan - Soorah Saad 38:29. Tawheed - its Importance from the Sunnah And what proves the importance of Tawheed from the Sunnah is that the Chosen one - may the peace and blessings of God be upon him - remained in Makkah thirteen years amongst the disbelievers, calling them to it, and saying to them: "Say: None has the right to be worshipped except Almighty God and thus be successful . . . ".32 The Messenger of God - may the peace and blessings of God be upon him - said: "I have been sent close to the Hour, with the sword, so that none has the right to be worshipped except Almighty God alone, without any partner. My sustenance is beneath the shade of my spear. And humiliation and ignominy is for whosoever opposes my command. And whosoever resembles a people is from them."33"34 Similarly he would send his Companions to various communities ordering them with this Tawheed first - as was the case when he sent Mu'aadh ibn Jabal to Yeman, saying: "Indeed you are going to a people from the People of the Book, so let the Tawheed of God be the very first thing you call them to . . . "35 And just as the Prophet - may the peace and blessings of God be upon him - started his Prophethood and teaching with the matter of Tawheed, then likewise he - may the peace and blessings of God be upon him - mentioned "the matter of Tawheed during his final illness from which he - may the peace and blessings of God be upon him - died, when he said: "The curse of Almighty God be upon the Jews and the Christians, for they took the graves of their Prophets as places of worship."36"37 32. Related by Ahmad (4/63). 33. Saheeh: Related by Ahmad (no. 5114) and Ibn Asaakir (19/96/1), from Ibn 'Umar - may God be pleased with him. It was authenticated by al-Haafidh al-'Iraaqee in Takhreejul-Ihya (3/42), and al-Haafidh Ibn Hajr in in Fathul-Baaree (10/222). 34. At-Tawheed wa Atharahu fee Hayaatil-Muslim (p.29). 35. Related by al-Bukhaaree (1/13) and Muslim (1/272), from Ibm 'Abbaas - may God be pleased with him. 36. Related by Bukhaaree (1/532) and Muslim (5/16). 37. At-Tawheed wa Atharahu fee Hayaatil-Muslim (p.29). Shaykhul-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah (died 728H) said: "The Tawheed with which the Messengers came with comprises of affirming that Divinity and worship belong to Almighty God alone, such that a person witnesses that none has the right to be worshipped except Almighty God, and that none is worshipped except Him, nor depended upon other than Him, nor are alliances or enemies made except for Him, nor is an action done except for Him. This affirmation also covers those Names and Attributes which Almighty God affirms for Himself, as God - the Most High - says: "And the God to be worshipped is only one God. None has the right to be worshipped except Him, the Most Merciful, the Bestower of Mercy."38 And God - the Most High - says: "Do not take two objects of worship. Indeed, Almighty God is the only Deity to be worshipped, so fear Him."30. And He - the Most High - says: "Whosoever calls upon (i.e. supplicates or prays to) other than God, for which he has no proof, then his reckoning is only with his Lord. Indeed the disbelievers will not be successful."40 Almighty God - the Most High - also says: "And ask those of our Messengers whom we sent before you: 'Did We ever appoint objects of worship besides the Most Merciful?'"41 And Almighty God informed us about every Prophet from amongst the Prophets that they called the people to the worship of God al
Meaning of taghanni (?reciting in a melodious voice?) in Qur?aan recitation
I have heard that there are ahaadeeth which indicate that it is allowed to recite the Qur?aan in a melodious voice (taghanni). How are we to understand these ahaadeeth?
Praise be to Allaah.
Reciting in a melodious voice (taghanni) may mean:
1 ? Making the voice beautiful when reciting, whilst reciting aloud in a tone that conveys the feelings of humility, softening of the heart and sadness, without making too much effort or exaggerating.
Taghanni means reciting aloud, as it was narrated in Saheeh Muslim that Abu Hurayrah said: ?The Messenger of Allaah SAWS (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: ?Allaah does not listen to anything (more approvingly) than He listens to a Prophet reciting the Qur?aan aloud in a melodious voice?? This indicates that we are commanded and encouraged to make our voices beautiful when reciting Qur?aan.
This hadeeth clearly states the meaning of taghanni. The phrase ?reciting aloud? explains it. Reciting aloud means raising one?s voice when reciting and making it beautiful, in a natural manner with no artifice, which one enjoys and finds pleasure in. Before the Qur?aan was revealed, the Arabs used to sing hudaa? (songs of camel drivers) when riding camels, to make the journey pass more quickly when they were sitting in their saddles, and so on.
But when the Qur?aan was revealed, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) wanted to make them focus on the Qur?aan and raise their voices and make them beautiful when reciting it. He wanted that to take the place of singing, whilst paying attention to the correctness of the recitation. So in place of the pleasure of singing, they were given the pleasure of reciting Qur?aan, just as everything forbidden was replaced with something that was better for them. So istikhaarah was prescribed in place of seeking decisions from azlaam (arrows for divination) and marriage in place of fornication, and so on.
2 ? It may be that what is meant by taghanni is that which resembles singing and music, and impressing others with the tune, without understanding and without any humility, as mentioned in the hadeeth which describes the Signs of the Hour.
3 ? It is unlikely that taghanni means being content with the Qur?aan alone and having no need of people, because the meaning is different and is linguistically unacceptable.
This making the voice melodious in recitation should be done in a natural manner, not by means of teaching and training according to the rules of music.
Ibn al-Qayyim mentioned that reciting Qur?aan with a tune and in a melodious voice, if it is done naturally with no exaggeration or special teaching or training, then it is permissible. If extra effort is added to the natural tone to make it more beautiful, such as when Abu Moosa al-Ash?ari said to the Prophet SAWS (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), ?If I had known (you were listening), I would have made it more beautiful for you,? then that is OK. But if the reciting in a melodious voice is done in an artificial manner, with special training and musical rhythms, this is something which the salaf despised, and which they criticized and condemned. It is known that the salaf used to recite the Qur?aan in a sad tone, making their voices beautiful and giving it a sad tone sometimes and a joyful tone sometimes. This is something natural.
Defining the meaning of making the voice melodious (taghanni)
(a) I say: there is no dispute concerning the validity of the fatwa of Imaam Maalik which is based on the hadeeth of the Signs of the Hour, with its various isnaads, and which states that it is not permitted to recite with a musical tune and following the rules of music in a manner that goes beyond the limits of recitation and correct pronunciation, and does not befit the dignity of the Qur?aan.
(b) The ahaadeeth of Anas and Abu Dharr (may Allaah be pleased with them both) refer to the recitation of the Khawaarij, who used to recite the Qur?aan throughout the night and day, but it did not go any deeper than their throats or collar bones, because they did not have knowledge of the Sunnah which clarifies matters, so they were deprived of proper understanding and the reward for recitation. In the ahaadeeth it says that they would exit from the religion like an arrow passing through its target. The ahaadeeth contain the command to kill them and says that they are the most evil of creation, even though you would think that your prayer and your recitation are as nothing when compared with their prayer and recitation. This is the description of the Khawaarij and those who are like them. Ibn Taymiyah said: the hadeeth about the Khawaarij is saheeh in ten different isnaads, which were narrated by Muslim in his Saheeh, and some of which were narrated by al-Bukhaari. The Khawaarij used to denounce the Muslims as kaafirs merely for committing sins, but they were the followers of bid?ah (innovations) and misinterpretations who had split away from the mainstream of the ummah. We ask Allaah to keep us safe and sound in our religious commitment and their worldly affairs.
This is a description which applies only to the Khawaarij and those who are like them. The reciters nowadays are not like this as far as we know.
(c) The fatwa of Imaam Ahmad has to do with distorting the letters and exaggerating elongated vowels, which results from altering the letters and elongating them too much, which takes the recitation beyond what is correct. This fatwa states that it is emphatically disliked, as al-Qaadi Abu Ya?laa said. This refers to someone who goes to extremes and whose recitation is not correct, because he adds letters, such as adding waw and alif to the word Muhammad, making it Moohaamad. This is haraam, according to consensus. At the time of Imaam Ahmad, the people used to sing poetry and elongate the letters however they wished. Ishaaq al-Mawsili criticized Ibraaheem ibn al-Mahdi for doing that, because he distorted the words from the way they should be in Arabic.
And denouncing that in the case of reciting Qur?aan in a melodious voice is more essential, and this problem does not exist nowadays, praise be to Allaah.
(d) Ibn Taymiyah said: the kind of tune which the scholars regard as makrooh for reciting Qur?aan in is that which involves shortening long letters, lengthening short letters, giving a vowel to a silent letter, or making a vowelled letter silent, in order to make it fit the rules of music. If that also involves changing the way the Qur?aan should be recited and elongating the vowels, then this is haraam.
Reconciling between the evidence which says it is forbidden and the evidence which says it is allowed
There is no contradiction between the evidence which says it is forbidden and the evidence which says it is allowed if the prohibition applies to that which goes beyond the limits of correct recitation, whether by adding or taking away, or by neglecting an obligatory rule, or by going against the well-established rules of recitation.
The prohibition also applies to that which is recited according to the rules of music, even if it is without the accompaniment of instruments, to make the voice tremble or quaver, or exaggerating in going along with a particular musical key which is in the reciter?s mind whilst he is reciting.
The permission applies only to that which is in accordance with the rules of sound recitation whilst making the voice beautiful.
If what is meant by giving a tune is adding or taking away anything, or going against the well-established rules of recitation, this is haraam. If I mean making the voice melodious in recitation (taghanni), in order to make the listener feel happy or sad, or to soften his heart or to make the recitation attractive whilst also pondering the meanings and reflecting humility, then it is mustahabb, so long as it does not distort the meaning or change the pronunciation, or follow the rules of music.
Al-Suyooti said: Reciting Qur?aan with a tune and with beautiful, quavering voices, so long as it does not deviate from the correct way of reciting, is a good way (Sunnah hasanah); if it does deviate from the correct way of reciting, then it is haraam and is an evil deed.
And he said in Sharh al-Risaalah:
From the comments of the imams it may be understood that making the voice beautiful whilst paying attention to the rules of music and also following the rules of recitation is an area that is subject to scholarly dispute.
Some of the scholars said that this is different from the way of the salaf, because the reader may neglect to recite properly, so they said that this was not permitted, in order to prevent the means that may lead to something haraam.
But making the voice beautiful whilst reciting Qur?aan, without paying attention to the rules of music is what is required, and there is no dispute concerning this.
Ibn Qudaamah said: the scholars are agreed that it is mustahabb to read Qur?aan with a sad tone, with a measured pace and with a beautiful voice.
I say: this is taken from the hadeeth of Buraydah, ?Recite the Qur?aan in a sad tone for it was revealed with sadness.? And the hadeeth of Ibn ?Abbaas: ?The best of people in reciting Qur?aan is the one who recites it in a sad tone.? But these hadeeths are both da?eef (weak) and the first one is da?eef jiddan (very weak).
al-Da?wah magazine, issue #1798 , p.44
Examples of acceptable reasons for asking one?s husband for khula?
Is it possible for the wife to get a khula even if the husband will not agree to it? Can you mention some reasons ?.
Praise be to Allaah.
I put this question to our Shaykh ?Abd-Allaah ibn ?Abd al-Rahmaan ibn Jibreen, and he answered as follows:
1.If a woman dislikes her husband?s treatment of her ? for example, he is over-strict, hot-tempered or easily-provoked, or gets angry a lot, or criticizes her and rebukes her for the slightest mistake or shortcoming, then she has the right of khula? [female-instigated divorce].
2.If she dislikes his physical appearance because of some deformity or ugliness, or because one of his faculties is missing, she has the right of khula?.
3.If he is lacking in religious commitment ? for example, he doesn?t pray, or neglects to pray in jamaa?ah, or does not fast in Ramadaan without a proper excuse, or he goes to parties where haraam things are done, such as fornication, drinking alcohol and listening to singing and musical instruments, etc. ? she has the right of khula?.
4.If he deprives of her of her rights of spending on her maintenance, clothing and other essential needs, when he is able to provide these things, then she has the right to ask for khula?.
5.If he does not give her her conjugal rights and thus keep her chaste because he is impotent (i.e. unable to have intercourse), or because he does not like her, or he prefers someone else, or he is unfair in the division of his time [i.e., among co-wives], then she has the right to ask for khula?.
And Allaah knows best.
Shaykh ?Abd-Allaah ibn ?Abd al-Rahmaan ibn Jibreen